potassium cyanide
CAS No.: 151-50-8 Formula: CKN Molecular Weight: 65.11570

potassium cyanide

CAS No.: 151-50-8 Formula: CKN Molecular Weight: 65.11570
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Description

Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline salt, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. Most KCN is used in gold mining, organic synthesis, and electroplating. Smaller applications include jewelry for chemical gilding and buffing.
KCN is highly toxic. The moist solid emits small amounts of hydrogen cyanide due to hydrolysis, which smells like bitter almonds. Not everyone, however, can smell this; the ability to do so is a genetic trait.
The taste of cyanide has been described as acrid with a burning sensation on the tongue. An Indian man who committed suicide left a hastily scrawled note describing the taste of the fatal toxin, the Hindustan Times newspaper reported. "Doctors, potassium cyanide. I have tasted it. It burns the tongue and tastes acrid," he wrote, according to the paper.

Basic Info

Chemical Name potassium cyanide
Synonyms

POTSSIUM CYANIDE; hydrocyanic acid,potassium salt; kaliumcyanid; hydrogen cyanide,potassium salt; POTASSIUM CYANIDE; KCN; Cyanides; cyanuredepotassium; Feratox; Expand

CAS No. 151-50-8
Molecular Formula CKN
Molecular Weight 65.11570
PSA 23.79000
LogP 0.01678

Properties

Appearance & Physical State white granular powder or crystals
Density 1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
Boiling Point 1625 °C
Melting Point 634 °C(lit.)
Flash Point 1625°C
Stability Stable. Incompatible with a variety of materials, including acids, iodine, peroxides, permanganates, alkaloids, chloral hydrate, metallic salts. Light and moisture sensitive. Contact with acid generates extremely toxic HCN gas.
Storage Condition Poison room

Safety Info

RTECS TS8750000
Hazard Class 6.1
Safety Statements S7; S28; S29; S45
HS Code 2837191000
WGK Germany 3
Packing Group I
RIDADR UN 1680 6.1/PG 1
Risk Statements R26/27/28; R32; R50/53
Hazard Codes T+; N
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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 19, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 19, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name potassium cyanide

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names hydrocyanic acid,potassium salt

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Systemic Agent
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Telephone +86(21)64956998
Fax +86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Corrosive to metals, Category 1

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 1

Acute toxicity - Dermal, Category 1

Acute toxicity - Inhalation, Category 1

Specific target organ toxicity – repeated exposure, Category 1

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, short-term (Acute) - Category Acute 1

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H290 May be corrosive to metals

H300 Fatal if swallowed

H310 Fatal in contact with skin

H330 Fatal if inhaled

H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P234 Keep only in original packaging.

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P262 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P284 [In case of inadequate ventilation] wear respiratory protection.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.

Response

P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.

P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P330 Rinse mouth.

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P361+P364 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see ... on this label).

P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.

P391 Collect spillage.

Storage

P406 Store in a corrosion resistant/...container with a resistant inner liner.

P405 Store locked up.

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
potassium cyanide potassium cyanide 151-50-8 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest. No mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. Administration of oxygen may be needed. Refer for medical attention.

In case of skin contact

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention .

In case of eye contact

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.

If swallowed

Induce vomiting (ONLY IN CONSCIOUS PERSONS!). Wear protective gloves when inducing vomiting. NO mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. Administration of oxygen may be needed. Refer for medical attention .

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

It is classified as super toxic. Probable oral lethal dose in humans is less than 5 mg/kg or less than a taste (7 drops) for a 150 lb. person. It is an eye and skin irritant. Poisonous in very small quantities; a taste is lethal. (EPA, 1998)

Excerpt from ERG Guide 157 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Reaction with water or moist air may release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat that will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

Due to the apparent low binding capacity of activated charcoal for potassium cyanide (KCN) in vitro, the use of oral activated charcoal therapy for oral exposure to cyanide compounds is controversial. In our study, rats were given a lethal oral dose of ground granular KCN (35 or 40 mg/kg) in a gelatin capsule followed immediately by either 4 g/kg of superactivated charcoal in a 20% suspension or a similar volume of deionized water. Signs of cyanide toxicosis occurred rapidly, with a mean time to signs of 3.3 and 2.7 min in control animals receiving 35 or 40 mg/kg KCN, respectively. All 26 of the control rats showed signs, and all but one in the 35 mg/kg group died within 19 min. Only 12 of 26 rats treated with superactivated charcoal showed signs of KCN toxicosis and eight of those animals died.

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Do not use carbon dioxide extinguisher. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. Water may be used on nearby fires not involving potassium cyanide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Use alkali dry chemical.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

Contact with acid releases highly flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Moisture may cause this material to volatilize as hydrogen cyanide. When heated to decomposition, it emits very toxic fumes of cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Reacts with acids to produce hydrogen cyanide gas. Reacts with strong oxidizers such as nitrates and chlorates, nitrogen trichloride; perchloryl fluoride; sodium nitrate; acids; alkaloids; chloral hydrate; iodine. Avoid contact with acids. (EPA, 1998)

Excerpt from ERG Guide 157 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. For UN1796, UN1826, UN2031 at high concentrations and for UN2032, these may act as oxidizers, also consult ERG Guide 140. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Substance may react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. (ERG, 2016)

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Ventilation. Sweep spilled substance into covered dry, sealable, labelled containers. Cautiously neutralize remainder with sodium hypochlorite solution. Then wash away with plenty of water.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Spills of cyanide salts should be immediately and carefully cleaned up by shoveling the material into a proper container. Care must be exercised to minimize any dispersal of cyanide dust into the air. /Cyanide salts/

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Separated from strong oxidants, acids, food and feedstuffs, carbon dioxide and products containing water. Dry. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Min Ceiling value: 5 mg/cu m (4.7 ppm).

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state white granular powder or crystals
Colour White, granular powder or fused pieces
Odour Faint odor of bitter almonds
Melting point/ freezing point 634 °C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 1625 °C
Flammability Not combustible but forms flammable gas on contact with water or damp air. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point 1625°C
Auto-ignition temperature Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH 11.0 (0.1 N aq soln)
Kinematic viscosity no data available
Solubility 72 % at 25°C (NIOSH, 2016)
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
Vapour pressure 0 mm Hg (approx) (NIOSH, 2016)
Density and/or relative density 1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
Relative vapour density no data available
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

In air, it is gradually decomp on exposure to carbon dioxide and moisture.

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

Vapors may collect and stay in confined areas (e.g., sewers, basements, and tanks).Hazardous concentrations may develop quickly in enclosed, poorly-ventilated, or low-lying areas. Keep out of these areas. Stay upwind.Hydrogen cyanide gas produced from potassium cyanide mixes well with air; explosive mixtures are easily formed.POTASSIUM CYANIDE is a basic salt and a reducing agent. Reacts with acids of all kinds to generate poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas. Can react violently with oxidizing agents: fusion with metal chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates, or nitrites can cause explosions [Bretherick 1979. p. 101]. A mixture with perchloryl fluoride may explode above 100°C. A mixture with nitrite salts may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. p. 30]. Incompatible with iodine. Initiates the explosive decomposition of nitrogen trichloride.

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

Reacts with water or any acid releasing hydrogen cyanide.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

Potassium ... cyanide solutions give off hydrogen cyanide when heated above 176 deg F. /Potassium cyanide soln/

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Rat oral 5 mg/kg
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

no data available

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

no data available

12.4 Mobility in soil

no data available

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN1680 IMDG: UN1680 IATA: UN1680

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: POTASSIUM CYANIDE, SOLID
IMDG: POTASSIUM CYANIDE, SOLID
IATA: POTASSIUM CYANIDE, SOLID

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 6.1 IMDG: 6.1 IATA: 6.1

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: I IMDG: I IATA: I

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: yes IMDG: yes IATA: yes

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
potassium cyanide potassium cyanide 151-50-8 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 19, 2017
Revision Date Aug 19, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS Expand
13C NMR : PredictExpand

NMR Spectrum 13C NMR : Predict

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IR : nujol mullExpand
ESR : UV IRRAD. IN KCL DOPED WITH KCN(90% 13C)Expand
Exposure Route Type of Test Species Observed Dose/Duration Toxic Effects
Oral TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose Human - woman 100 mg/kg 1.Behavioral-convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
2.Cardiac-pulse rate increase, without fall in BP
3.Vascular-BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
Oral LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose Human 2857 ug/kg 1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
Oral TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose Human - man 13699 ug/kg 1.Behavioral-convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
2.Behavioral-coma
3.Nutritional and Gross Metabolic-metabolic acidosis
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