formic acid
CAS No.: 64-18-6 Formula: CH2O2 Molecular Weight: 46.02540
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formic acid

CAS No.: 64-18-6 Formula: CH2O2 Molecular Weight: 46.02540
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Description

Formic acid (also called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anions derived from formic acid are called formates.

Basic Info

Chemical Name formic acid
Synonyms

Myrmicyl; formic; Amasil; MORBICID; Formic acid; Add-F; Formira; FORMOL; HCOOH; Bilorin; Expand

CAS No. 64-18-6
Molecular Formula CH2O2
Molecular Weight 46.02540
PSA 37.30000
LogP 0.33670

Properties

Appearance & Physical State colorless liquid with a pungent odor
Density 1.22
Boiling Point 101ºC
Melting Point 8ºC
Flash Point 69ºC
Refractive Index 1.3701-1.3721
Water Solubility MISCIBLE
Stability Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and powdered metals, furfuryl alcohol. Combustible. Hygroscopic. Pressure may build up in tightly closed bottles, so bottles should be opened carefully and vented periodically.
Storage Condition 2-8ºC
Vapor Density 1.03 (vs air)
Vapor Pressure 52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)

Safety Info

RTECS LP8925000
Hazard Class 8
Safety Statements S23-S26-S45
HS Code 2915110000
Packing Group II
WGK Germany 2
RIDADR UN 1779
Risk Statements R35
Hazard Codes C
Caution Statement P261; P280; P301 + P312 + P330; P303 + P361 + P353; P304 + P340 + P310; P305 + P351 + P338
Hazard Declaration H226; H302; H314; H331
Signal Word Danger
Supplemental Hazard Statements Corrosive to the respiratory tract.
Symbol GHS05, GHS07
SDS Version: 1.0 Expand

SDS Version: 1.0

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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name formic acid

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names formic

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Preservatives and Antioxidants;Processing Aids and Additives
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company XiXisys.com
Address XiXisys.com
Telephone XiXisys.com
Fax XiXisys.com

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin corrosion, Category 1A

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

Response

P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.

P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

Storage

P405 Store locked up.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
formic acid formic acid 64-18-6 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Refer for medical attention.

In case of skin contact

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention .

In case of eye contact

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.

If swallowed

Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention .

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

Liquid causes skin and eye burns. Vapors are irritating and painful to breath. Vapor exposure may cause nausea and vomiting. (USCG, 1999)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

... Hemodialysis accelerates both the elimination of both methanol and formic acid and also assists in correction of metabolic acidosis. Experimental data suggests that the administration of folic acid may be of benefit by hastening the metabolism of formic acid to carbon dioxide. Prompt ... /treatment/ can probably decr the morbidity and mortality /associated with this form/ of poisoning.

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol resistant" foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic vapor generated in fires (USCG, 1999)

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Cautiously neutralize spilled liquid with weak alkaline solution such as disodium carbonate. Then wash away with plenty of water.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Spill or leak procedures: Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors and protect personnel. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal. Neutralize spill and washings with soda ash or lime.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Separated from strong oxidants, strong bases, strong acids and food and feedstuffs. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room.Store in a dry, well-ventilated place. Separate from oxidizing materials and alkaline substances.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 5 ppm (9 mg/cu m).

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state colorless liquid with a pungent odor
Colour Colorless fuming liquid
Odour Pungent, penetrating odor
Melting point/ freezing point 8°C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 100-101°C(lit.)
Flammability Class II Combustible Liquid: Fl.P. at or above 37.78°C and below 60°C. (90% solution)Combustible.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit Lower flammable limit: 18% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 57% by volume
Flash point 49°C
Auto-ignition temperature 540°C
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity 1.607 mPas at 25°C
Solubility In water:MISCIBLE
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
Vapour pressure 52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
Density and/or relative density 1.22g/mLat 25°C(lit.)
Relative vapour density 1.03 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

May deteriorate in normal storage and cause hazard.

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

Combustible liquid when wxposed to heat or flame ... .FORMIC ACID reacts exothmerically with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Reacts with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Reacts with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Reacts with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides to generate flammable or toxic gases. Reacts with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates to generate carbon dioxide but still heat. Can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. May initiate polymerization reactions or catalyze other chemical reactions. A mixture with furfuryl alcohol exploded [Chem. Eng. News 18:72(1940)].

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

/Aluminium/ ... reduces the acid (itself a reducant) with incandescence.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

The substance decomposes on heating and on contact with strong acids (sulfuric acid) producing carbon monoxide.

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Dog oral 4000 mg/kg
  • Inhalation: LC50 Mouse inhalation 6200 mg/cu m /15 min
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: LC50; Species: Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill); Concentration: 175 mg/L for 24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified in source examined
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: LC50; Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea); Concentration: 34 mg/L for 24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified in source examined
  • Toxicity to algae: EC50; Species: Scenedesmus subspicatus (Green algae); Concentration: 26.9 mg/L for 72 hr; Effect: cell multiplication inhibition /Conditions of bioassay not specified in source examined
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: Formic acid biodegrades readily in screening tests(1-9). Specific results include: 4.3 and 38.8% of theoretical BOD after 5 and 10 days using a sewage inoculum(1); 43.7-77.6% of theoretical BOD after 5 days with a sewage inoculum(2); 70% of theoretical BOD in 24 hours using activated sludge(3); 66% of theoretical BOD in 12 hours using an activated sludge inoculum(4); 39.9% of theoretical BOD in 24 hours with activated sludge(5); 48 and 51% of theoretical BOD after 5 days with unacclimated and acclimated sewage inoculum, respectively(6); and 40.5 and 51.7% of theoretical BOD after 5 days with sewage inocula in fresh water and synthetic seawater, respectively(7). Microorganisms are present in the air that can degrade formate in rainwater(8). Formic acid, present at 100 mg/L, reached 110% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test(9).

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

An estimated BCF of 3 was calculated in fish for formic acid(SRC), using a log Kow of -0.54(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).

12.4 Mobility in soil

The Koc of formic acid is estimated as 1(SRC), using a log Kow of -0.54(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this estimated Koc value suggests that formic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil. The pKa of formic acid is 3.75(4), indicating that this compound will primarily exist in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(5).

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN1779 IMDG: UN1779 IATA: UN1779

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: FORMIC ACID with more than 85% acid by mass
IMDG: FORMIC ACID with more than 85% acid by mass
IATA: FORMIC ACID with more than 85% acid by mass

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 3 IMDG: 3 IATA: 3

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: II IMDG: II IATA: II

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
formic acid formic acid 64-18-6 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS Expand
1H NMR : 400 MHz in D2OExpand

NMR Spectrum 1H NMR : 400 MHz in D2O

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C H2 O2 0.05 ml : 0.5 ml D2O
formic acid

Assign. Shift(ppm)
A 8.257

THE SOLVENT SIGNAL REMOVED.

IR : liquid filmExpand
Mass spectrum (electron ionization)Expand
Raman : 4880 A,200 M,liquidExpand

GC Analysis

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